How to describe membrane function in the body
In the body, cell membranes are made up of protein molecules that act as the link between different parts of the cell.
In the brain, the brain’s cerebellum, the cerebellar cortex, and the thalamus are the major regions where these protein molecules are active.
In humans, these molecules play an important role in communication between the brain and other parts of our body.
This membrane function has been a mystery for years, until scientists identified it in the mouse brain.
In a paper published in Nature Neuroscience in 2015, researchers discovered that neurons in the cerebrum of mice with an abnormal protein called membrane potential, or MPP, responded differently to different kinds of stimuli.
MPP is one of a group of molecules called membrane transporters that allow cells to pass the electrical signals from one part of the body to another.
For example, the protein phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which is involved in the metabolism of fats, has been shown to increase in response to membrane potential changes.
Another protein called extracellular matrix protein kinase-4 (EMPK-4), which regulates protein production, decreased in response.
The researchers also found that neurons with abnormal MPP in the hippocampus, a part of our brain involved in memory, showed higher levels of phosphorylated proteins that help to maintain the integrity of memory.
These results are very exciting, said David J. Kline, an assistant professor of physiology at the University of California, San Francisco.
“We have identified one of the major regulators of cell membrane function,” Kline said.
“This is one more example of how this is important for the brain.”
In the study, the researchers found that MPP also increased in response only to a certain type of stimuli, suggesting that this pathway plays an important part in maintaining the integrity and function of the neurons.
The mechanism of this increased expression of MPP might be involved in how the membrane function of neurons in humans is affected by different kinds and intensities of stimulation.
It also might also be part of a process that helps maintain cell membrane integrity.
“It’s not that the membrane is damaged by stimulation; it’s that the signal is altered,” KLINE said.
For instance, some of the proteins in the brain are active when the brain is under pressure or when there are other stressors in the environment.
“The more you stress the cell, the more the membrane becomes degraded, and you get these effects that are important for maintaining the cell’s integrity,” he said.
But the mechanism that determines how MPP levels are elevated in response is still unclear.
For now, the next step for Kline is to figure out how the MPP protein was activated in the cells of mice and whether this pathway is part of what makes them more sensitive to stress.
“That’s really exciting because we don’t have any clear explanation for what it does in the nervous system, other than it might be a mechanism for protecting neurons from injury or other things,” Klines said.
It’s important that scientists find out what kind of protein is activated in other tissues, because different types of proteins are known to activate different proteins in different tissues, and this could help scientists understand how different types affect different kinds in different parts to regulate different parts in the same organism.
“One of the challenges with this kind of research is that there are no published examples of proteins that are involved in this kind [function],” Kline added.
“Right now, it’s difficult to identify what kind that protein is.
The next step is to find out how that protein might activate different types and activate different functions in different organs.”
The team has also found several other protein kinases that may be involved with the integrity, function and function change of the membrane.
One of these proteins, called phosphatase, is activated by many types of stimuli and that may affect how different kinds affect the membrane and how the function changes.
The team is also interested in the role of these kinases in the regulation of other functions.
“What is important to know is how many different types they’re involved in and what they’re activating,” Kliner said.
The study also found differences in the response of the mouse and human brain to different types, intensities and types of stimulation, suggesting these different proteins are also involved in different functions.
What’s more, this new study may help to understand how we can prevent the brain from getting damaged by trauma or other stressful events.
“I think this is a very exciting finding,” Klin said.
In addition to Kline and his colleagues, other scientists involved in developing the mouse model of MPI are: James A. Miller, M.D.; Elizabeth B. Koehler, M., Ph.
D., M.P.H.; and Ralf R. Meisenberg, Ph.P., Ph