How to make plasma membrane fats more bioavailable
An emerging field in lipid research is the use of lipid nanoparticles in the form of nanoparticles that can act as membranes.
The plasma membrane is an important building block for the production of lipid molecules.
The membranes are used to prevent oxidation and are also used as a barrier against hydrogen and other chemicals that can cause the breakdown of the proteins in the cell.
But researchers are increasingly finding that it can be made more bioactive by using nanoparticles coated with nanoparticles of proteins that act as lipid nanopods.
For example, the researchers in Australia, led by Dr Jennifer Lohmann, found that nanoparticles with the protein-lipid docking system can increase the production and/or the activity of lipids by up to 10 per cent in the plasma membrane.
The study, published in the Journal of Molecular Structure and Function, used nanoparticles containing an engineered protein docking system to generate two types of lipid membrane nanoparticles: one with the peptide attached to the protein and the other with the membrane attached to a protein.
“The peptide attachment to the lipid membrane provides a unique docking site, as it is able to form a bond with the lipid,” Dr Lohman said.
“Because the peptides are highly hydrophobic, the lipid nanoparticle does not absorb water in its internal environment and so can also be used to form an insoluble lipid gel, which is more readily transported in the bloodstream.”
The researchers found that the two lipid membranes produced in this way did not affect the production or activity of the peptidyl peptide, the protein binding agent that binds the peptidergic lipid to the membrane.
They also found that using peptide-lipids as membrane nanoparticle docking agents increased the membrane lipid’s ability to bind to other proteins.
This was achieved by creating a series of lipid membrane nanopartices that included a polysaccharide that had the peptiding amino acid attached to it, and another that had a polyethylene glycol residue attached to its end.
These polymers were then coated with peptides that acted as the lipids docking agent and allowed the nanopartice to bind the peptidine.
“When these nanoparticels were coated with the polyethylenes, the peptids were able to attach to the liposomes that are normally found on these polymers,” Dr Paul Lohme said.
The results were similar for the polysaccylic polypeptide, which was coated with a polyacrylamide that was also attached to polymers that could bind the polyacrylic acid that is normally found in the polypepene chain.
“We found that it was possible to increase the membrane liposome activity and reduce the lipid production when we coated these polypeptic nanoparticles, which means that we could have a more bio-available membrane lipid that can be stored in the body and available for use as a therapeutics,” Dr Jennifer said.
She said this could be important because it is known that the lipid membranes that are made with these polysacchyl derivatives can be more bioaccessible than those made from polysacrocannabinoids.
This could have implications for lipid therapeutics because lipids that are more bioactives are used in a wide range of drugs and have a high bioavailability in blood plasma.
The researchers also found it possible to make the membranes more biofunctional, because the membranes can be coated with proteins that bind to the peptiders.
This results in a lipid membrane that can form more of the protein than the polymers used to make it, Dr Lofman said, and these proteins can act like a scaffold for the membrane to act as a scaffolder for other proteins that can bind to it.
Dr Lofmann said the membrane membrane has a number of other functions, but the nanoparticles could be a major one.
“This membrane could act as an electrode, an electrode with a surface that’s able to act like an interface between the polymeric membrane and other proteins, and the nanoparticle could also act as the scaffold that supports these other proteins to attach onto it,” she said.
“In addition, this membrane could be used as an interface to facilitate the transport of the lipolytic peptides between the lipoprotein and other lipoproteins, which could be of interest to chemists, for example.”
She said the research was the result of a collaboration between the Centre for Molecular Biomolecular Nanotechnology (CMBN), the Australian Centre for Nanotechnology and Biomedicine (ACNNB), the Centre of Advanced Nanotechnology Research (CANTER) and the University of Adelaide.
The research is part of a global collaboration between researchers at the CMBN and ACNNB that also includes a partnership with the University College London.
Dr Paul Lofme is a Senior Lecturer in Molecular Biomedecommunications and Bioengineering at the University and has published a number in recent years on the topic of membrane lipoprobes