Which type of mucous membranes are the most important for the prevention and treatment of infections?
In an attempt to tackle a burgeoning public health crisis, the World Health Organization (WHO) has set up a joint research and development programme to develop vaccines for mucous-associated infections (MARI).
A vaccine has been developed for the murine coronavirus, known as M-CARV, which causes severe pneumonia, and is currently undergoing trials.
M-carv is not considered a pandemic disease by WHO and has been around for over a decade.
MARI, on the other hand, is a coronaviral disease that causes severe respiratory infections and, in some cases, pneumonia, which are the major causes of death in India.
It affects about 2.4 million people, and kills about 2,000 a day.
A vaccine for M- CARV is expected to be approved in 2020 and is due to be launched in 2025, followed by M-ARI in 2030.
According to the WHO, the benefits of a vaccine are to be expected when the risk of infection is reduced by as much as 60% in vaccinated people and up to 80% in unvaccinated people.
MCARV vaccination is the most effective of three vaccines currently in trials, and has shown efficacy in preventing coronaviruses in some vaccinated populations.MARI vaccine has shown high safety and efficacy in humans, the WHO says.
But it needs to be administered to people who are not at high risk of contracting it.
The virus can be transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids such as saliva, mucous or blood.
M-CARVs vaccine is a mixture of three proteins.
The first one, capsid protein, is made from capsid DNA, the genetic material that is found in cells and in the virus.
The second one, cytoplasmic protein, contains RNA, the molecular material that gives viruses their genetic structure.
The third one, extracellular protein, was developed by a collaboration of Indian researchers in collaboration with researchers in China and Taiwan.
Mari vaccine will be administered by an intravenous injection, or injection.
In an earlier vaccine, the injection was administered intravenously.
However, the MARI vaccine will also be administered through a nasal cannula and a syringe.
Dr M Gopalakrishnan, a consultant in infectious diseases, and Dr Vikas Kumar, professor of molecular and cellular biology at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, are working on the M-ARV vaccine.
Dr Kumar has been the principal investigator in the MCRV vaccine project since its inception in the early 1990s.
Gopalakrantan, who is also the director of the India Centre for Microbial Immunology, said the M.CARV vaccine will provide protection against M-Cari in two ways: It will reduce the rate of infection and also reduce the risk that the virus will be transmitted to the next person.
M CARV vaccine is likely to be a cost-effective option in India and other countries.
The WHO, however, has not given a timeframe for the launch of M- ARV vaccine, saying that it will be launched as soon as possible.
CARV vaccines are already being administered to children.
The WHO has given its nod to a vaccine for the mumps, diphtheria and tetanus (M-Tox) vaccine in the form of a nasal spray and nasal tube.
The M-Toxic vaccine is being developed by scientists in China.
The M- Tox vaccine, on its own, is not very effective and is being investigated as a possible alternative to the nasal spray.
The vaccination is also being developed for other respiratory infections such as pneumonia, rhinitis, bronchitis and other diseases.
Dr Gopal Kumar, who also serves as an expert in infectious disease, said it will provide immunity against M CARVs in all ages, genders and races.
“It will provide a protection against the common cold, which is associated with viral transmission,” he said.MURF, which stands for mucus secretory unit, is an important part of the respiratory system, helping to break down mucus particles to protect the body from bacterial contamination and infection.
Mucus is also an important component of the immune system and helps to clear viruses from the body.
It also helps to kill bacteria that are present in the lungs, kidneys and digestive tract.
The mucus that is secreted by the lungs and kidneys is a barrier to bacterial infection and, therefore, helps prevent infection.
The amount of mucus in the mucous lining of the lungs can be reduced through breathing exercises and treatment with antibiotics.
Dr. Gopal said the WHO has asked researchers in India to explore the use of a mucus-based vaccine for mumps and diphmy.
“The MURF vaccine will offer protection against both M CARV and M Tox.
It will also help protect against respiratory infection,” he added