Why the ‘double membrane’ on your brain has been linked to autism
An international team of researchers has identified a new protein in the brain that is associated with the development of autism spectrum disorders.
The discovery of the new protein is described in a study published on Tuesday in Nature Neuroscience.
The finding raises the possibility that autism spectrum disorder could be caused by a deficiency in certain genes or that certain brain regions could be vulnerable to damage caused by environmental toxins.
The study, led by researchers from the University of Southern California’s School of Medicine and the University at Buffalo, also suggests that the structure of the membranes of the brain could be important in the development and progression of autism.
“Our results suggest that the membrane may be critical in regulating the brain’s communication and signaling systems,” said study co-author Dr. Steven S. Miller, a neuroscientist at the University School of Engineering at Buffalo.
“What’s particularly exciting is that our findings also identify the membrane as a key mediator of communication between neurons in the frontal cortex, the area of the human brain that has been associated with autism.”
The membrane is a thin membrane that encases the cell membrane and surrounds the cell nucleus, which is where proteins communicate with each other.
It also plays a role in regulating neurotransmitter production.
The researchers say the discovery of this protein, which they call Tg1, could have major implications for understanding the link between autism and the human body.
“Tg1 has been shown to play a critical role in many cellular processes, including the production of many neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine,” said lead author Dr. James W. Hannon, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the School of Psychology at Southern California.
“We are interested in finding out if the Tg protein has the same function in autism, and if it has any possible role in autism spectrum conditions.”
The study is a collaboration between Miller’s lab at USC, the University’s School for Medicine, and the Brain and Behavior Laboratory at the Buffalo Neurobiology Institute.
“This is an exciting discovery,” said Dr. Scott C. Biederman, professor of neurology at the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical College of Wisconsin and a member of the USC team.
“We are excited that this study provides important evidence of the role of Tg in the pathogenesis of autism, which, in turn, could lead to novel therapies for autism.”
While the study focused on the human version of autism known as “autism spectrum disorder,” which includes symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, the team also examined brain regions that may be affected by autism spectrum.
“While we are still developing the human models, we found that Tg is important in regulating several key neuronal signaling pathways, including in the regions associated with attention and memory,” Miller said.
“Tg plays a critical physiological role in the regulation of the neurotransmitter systems that are essential for the maintenance of normal behavior in the human organism.
This suggests that Tb1 could have an important role in regulation of these neural signaling pathways in the mouse brain.”
In addition to studying Tg, the research team also studied the membrane’s structure and function in other brain regions.
The membrane structure of neurons is tightly regulated, meaning it can respond to chemical signals without having to alter its structure.
For example, a protein called Tg-1 is present in the membrane and is essential for maintaining the cell’s electrical charge, but it can also act as a signal carrier for other chemicals and molecules, such as neurotransmitter molecules.
In the human form of autism that is not associated with Tg signaling, the researchers found that some of the membrane membrane’s key functions are not regulated at all.
The team also found that a single protein called Trp24 plays a major role in cell communication.
In this case, the protein has been identified as a protein that controls the expression of many proteins, such the brain stem cell and brain stem cholinergic neurons.
In the new study, Miller and his colleagues identified a second protein called Nop3, which plays a similar role in brain communication and is involved in signaling.
“In addition, we have identified a novel pathway called Nops3-3 that has a role not only in regulating communication, but also in signaling downstream to neuronal activity, such neurotransmitter release and cell survival,” Miller explained.
“These pathways appear to have been overlooked in previous studies.”
The team suggests that these two proteins might help to explain why the membrane has a double membrane.
“The membrane has been thought to be a kind of protective membrane against environmental damage and insults that disrupt the normal functioning of the cell,” Miller told Bleacher Watch.
“But in fact, the fact that the brain has two different kinds of membranes could make it difficult to understand how these membranes are protected against environmental insults.”
In this case study, the study team found that, while the membrane protects against environmental